GLOBAL, INDIAN AND AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY:

Need To Produce Sufficient Sugar Cane Based Sugar, Fuel Ethanol And Electricity Through Integrated Sugar Complex To Generate The Employment In A Near And Long Term Future.

 

Dr. PATIL A. S.,

 

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

M/s. India Bio and Agro Pacific Pvt. Ltd., Pune, MS, India.

([email protected])

The United Nations, in 2009, has projected a world population of 9,150 million inhabitants in 2050 (Source-World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision) and it is revised to 9,160 million (www.fao.org/economic/esa.), later on, it is predicted to 8,309 and 7,302 million in 2030 and 2015. This population growth will create the additional need for food, feed, fuel, energy, etc. for livelihood of the people at global level.

  1. 1. SUGAR– GLOBAL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

In the major sugar production countries of the world, the production and consumption of sugar [million tonnes, raw value] in 2015-16 and 2016-17,as per the sugar producing regions is given in Table 1 (Source- Cooperative Sugar, India, 2016,vol.47, no. 5 and 2017,vol. 48, no.5 ).

TABLE 1 – SUGAR PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION AT GLOBAL LEVEL, 2015-16 and 2016-17

*(mln trv)

REGION/YEAR

SUGAR PRODUCTION/ YEAR

SUGAR CONSUMPTION/ YEAR

2015-16

2016-17

2015-16

2016-17

SOUTH AMERICA

43.537

45.417

20.672

18.988

FAR EAST & OCEANIA

33.923

31.763

38.207

38.541

INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

33.236

29.391

33.698

35.130

NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA

21.803

22.210

19.268

19.960

WESTERN EUROPE

15.890

15.955

19.194

18.895 ­

EQUATORIAL & SOUTHERN AFRICA

7.775

10.241

7.580

10.520

EASTERN EUROPE & CIS

7.612

8.732

10.349

10.437

MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AMERICA

7.135

7.667

18.536

18.894

WORLD TOTAL

170.911

168.715

173.398

174.908

 

PRODUCTION AND USING UP OF SUGAR

At global level, the total sugar production was 170.91 and 168.71 mln trv during 2015 -16 and 2016-17. In which, South America, Far East and Oceania and Indian Subcontinent regions are prime, wherein, the sugar cane crop is dominant in producing sugar even under climate change conditions.

The share of cane sugar in world total making was 79.70, 79.20 and 80.20 %, while the beet sugar share in 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 was 20.30, 20.80 and 19.20 %, respectively (Source-www.indiansugar.com). Beet sugar share in world’s production was about to 27.75% in 2000-01. Due to increase of incidence of pests, diseases, low productivity as a result of many factors, fast deterioration in juice quality after maturity, very susceptible to water stagnation conditions in the field, increase of labour cost, requirement of additional power cost for sugar manufacturing, minimum profit to both, the farmers and mills in growing and processing of beet, etc., are the major factors responsible for declining the cultivation of beet crop and production of beet sugar, at world.

Sugar cane is a noble and hardy crop as compared to sugar beet and therefore, cane sugar production is at increasing side. It is expected the more declining of beet sugar in the total production and share of beet sugar may be less than 10.00 % in world, up to 2040. Therefore, more attention is needed towards the sugar cane, sugar research and development at world level, on many aspects including the production of fuel ethanol and electricity, considering the prime need of it and its shortage, mainly in Africa, North America, Indian Subcontinent, etc. on priority. It will be a challenging task to grow more, sufficient and quality cane to run a sugar factory minimum of 300 days (160 days is a standard in India) and for electricity generation, 350 days in a year, with a maximum productivity of cane and sugar in fields and more sugar in mills per month per hectare. Many countries are more conducive for growing the quality cane for these tasks from Africa, Asia and South America Continents and are best options. This will also help in creating and boosting the employment generation and financial prosperity along with health, educational, cultural, etc. aspects, at root level.

Sugar utilization was 173.398 and 174.908 mln trv, respectively, during 2015-16 and 2016-17 (Table1).The consumption of sugar noticed maximum in the region of Far East and Oceania and Indian Subcontinent in 2016-17, however, the sugar consumption growth of three to four million tonnes per year in Asia and Africa is expected and then, sugar demand may be 189.5 mln t by 2021 (source – www.fao.org).

Sugar manufacturing in Brazil during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 noticed maximum of 35.95, 34.65 and 37.78 mln trv, respectively (Table 2 ) and India was second with 30.46, 27.53 and 23.94 mln trv, respectively.EU, China, Thailand, USA, Mexico, Russian Federation, Australia and Egypt was next in production. South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria produces 1.66, 0.62, 0.34 and 0.06 mln trv of sugar in 2016-17, respectively and they are far behind than Thailand, which produces 9.75 mln trv and out of which, 8.00 min trv was exported. India, EU, China, USA and Brazil consumed to 27.20, 18.80, 17.50, 10.88 and 10.80 mln trv, respectively in 2016-17 (Table2) and was maximum. Consumption of sugar in Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa was maximum with 0.67, 0.93, 01.60 and 01.95 mln trv, respectively.

TABLE 2 – SUGAR PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION IN MAJOR COUNTRIES, 2014-15 TO 2016-17

COUNTRY/YEAR

SUGAR PRODUCTION / YEAR

SUGAR CONSUMPTION / YEAR

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

BRAZIL

35.95

34.65

37.78

11.40

10.90

10.80

INDIA

30.46

27.53

23.94

26.50

26.80

27.20

EU

18.44

14.28

16.20

18.70

18.80

18.80

CHINA

11.00

08.83

09.53

17.55

17.50

17.50

THAILAND

10.79

09.74

09.27

02.53

02.60

02.65

USA

07.85

08.15

08.46

10.78

10.80

10.88

MEXICO

06.34

06.48

06.67

04.63

04.68

04.72

RUSSIAN FED.

04.35

05.20

05.60

05.70

05.88

06.10

AUSTRALIA

04.70

04.90

05.10

03.20*

03.30*

03.40*

EGYPT

02.06

02.12

02.18

02.90

02.93

02.95

SOUTH AFRICA

02.19

01.68

01.66

01.95

01.95

01.95

( Source-www.fas.usda and *Source-Sugar Australia,Canberra.2016)

WORLD SUGAR PROJECTIONS — 2017 TO 2025

It is expected that during 2017 and 2018 , the world sugar production (Table 3) may be 177.80 and 181.90 million trv, with a consumption of 175.30 and 178.20 mln trv, respectively (www.fao.org./ OECD/FAO, 2016).

As per the estimation of OECD/FAO (2016), in 2025, the world production of sugar may be 210 million t, considering the foreseen growth with average of 2.1 % per annum. Consumption of world sugar is calculated to 204.7 million t in 2025 (Table 3) and considering closing stock for future safety, an additional 79.6 million t may be needed.

TABLE 3 – WORLD SUGAR PROJECTIONS, 2017 to 2025

*(mln trv)

YEAR

SUGAR PRODUCTION

SUGAR CONSUMPTION

2017

177.8

175.3

2018

181.9

178.2

2019

187.2

181.8

2020

191.4

185.7

2021

194.7

189.5

2022

198.8

193.5

2023

202.6

197.3

2024

206.2

201.0

2025

210.0

204.7

(Source .www.fao.org.OECD/FAO. 2016 )

It is important to note that fossil fuel is reducing, limitations in availability of it due to internal conflicts in and among the countries producing it, increase of price, etc. and therefore, sugar cane based integrated sugar complexes will be the major answer for producing fuel ethanol, electricity, sugar, etc. for local, regional and export use in some of the countries and is most important. The rural industries are the keys for over all progress of any nation, in which, more value has goes to farming of crops, farm related aspects and sugar, textile, milk, etc. industries and are prime , as experienced in India, Brazil, Mauritius, South Africa ,Kenya, Thailand, etc. In 2025, it is estimated that about 479.0 and 9.3 million t of sugar cane and sugar beet may be required to produce biofuel at world level. Considering all the facts and needs, a root level planning is essential to produce the sugar cane crop, double than the present for making of the sugar and co products as per potential ratios and need, mostly in congenial sugar cane eco system farming in many countries, preferably from Africa, Asia and South America, under climate change conditions and has no any productive, feasible, industry oriented and economical alternatives.

IMPORT OF SUGAR

Import of sugar at world, during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 (source-www.fas.usda.2016) was 50.24, 53.37 and 52.07 mln trv, respectively (Table 4) and more or less, it is constant to the tune of 50 to 53 mln trv. There is a prime scope to reduce the import of sugar in Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, South Sudan, Sudan, Ghana, Nigeria, etc.by increasing the own production of sugar cane based, sugar.

TABLE 4 – SUGAR IMPORT AT GLOBAL LEVEL, 2014-15 TO 2016-17

*(000 trv)

COUNTRY/YEAR

SUGAR IMPORT/ YEAR

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

CHINA

5,058

6,000

6,000

INDONESIA

2,950

3,605

3,350

EU

2,918

3,000

3,250

U.A.E.

2,366

2,460

2,480

USA

3,223

3,031

2,441

BANGLADESH

1,982

2,284

2,210

MALAYSIA

2,063

2,009

1,990

SOUTH KOREA

1,882

1,871

1,910

INDIA

1,000

1,352

1,400

SUDAN

1,319

900

900

RUSSAIN FED.

1,100

750

700

WORLD TOTAL

50,245

53,371

52,076

( Source -www.fas.usda.2016)

SHIPMENT OF SUGAR

During the last three years, the world sugar export is in between 53 to 55 mln trv (Table 5). As usual, Brazil has send out to 23.95, 24.35 and 27.12 mln trv of sugar during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17, respectively and became number one and Thailand stood second, at world level, with the export of 8.25, 7.80 and 8.00 mln trv, respectively (source-www.fas.usda.2016 ).

TABLE 5 – SUGAR EXPORT AT GLOBAL LEVEL, 2014-15 TO 2016-17

*(000 trv)

COUNTRY/YEAR

SUGAR EXPORT/ YEAR

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

BRAZIL

23,950

24,350

27,120

THAILAND

8,252

7,800

8,000

AUSTRALIA

3,561

3,700

4,000

EU

1,582

1,500

1,500

INDIA

2,580

3,000

1,500

MAURITIUS

426

424

435

SOUTH AFRICA

772

305

270

MOZAMBIQUE

237

240

240

WORLD TOTAL

54,780

53,672

55,904

(Source -www.fas.usda)

In Africa continent, only, Mauritius, South Africa and Mozambique have consigned the maximum of 0.435, 0.270 and 0.240 million t of sugar in 2016-17, respectively (Table 5 ) and ranked top in export of own produced sugar. The area under sugar cane in Mauritius is reducing mainly due to tourism and export of sugar may decrease, in future. Mozambique and South Africa may increase the export of sugar, mostly twice than present, as more potential climate conditions to grow the sugar cane crop are in exists and with the help of farmers and industrialists up to 2020.

INDIAN SUGAR CANE, PRODUCTIVITY AND SUGAR TARGETS

In India, sugar production during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 was 30.46, 27.53 and 23.94 mln trv, respectively from a sugar cane area of 5.067, 4.953 and 4.517 million hectares (Table 6), respectively with a nationwide mean sugar cane productivity of 71.50, 71.10 and 67.60 t/ha, respectively.

However, the maximum mean cane yield was 106.8, 103.0 and 106.0 t/ha in one of the Sugar Cane growing main State of India i.e. Tamil Nadu, during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17, respectively. It was 82.2, 73.2 and 78.5 t/ha, respectively in Maharashtra State, sugar bowl of India and 62.2, 67.0, and 61.9 t/ha in Uttar Pradesh State of India, respectively (Source- Indian Sugar, LXVII, no.10, January,2017).

The number of centrifugal sugar factories in operation in India are 526 during 2015-16, with their average duration of crushing season was 117 days and it was maximum of 174 days in 2006-07, however, prolonged duration of crushing season was 267 days in a year in Tamil Nadu State, India.

About 60 million sugar cane farmers and their households have been involved in sugar cane farming in India. The 0.5 million skilled and unskilled workers are employed in the industry and additional employment is also generated by its diversified industries.

TABLE 6 – SUGAR CANE AREA, YIELD AND SUGAR RECOVERY IN INDIA DURING 2014-15 (Actual), 2015-16 (Provisional) and 2016-17 (Estimated)

STATE/ YEAR

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

AREA

YIELD

SUGAR

RECOVERY

AREA

YIELD

SUGAR RECOVERY

AREA

YIELD

(000 ha)

(t/ha)

(% ) Cane

(000 ha)

(t/ha)

(% )Cane

(000 ha)

(t/ha)

MAHARASHTRA

1030

82.2

11.28

987

73.2

11.33

633

78.5

KARNATAKA

480

91.2

11.06

450

85.5

10.74

440

76.0

GUJARAT

208

68.9

10.35

183

70.8

10.38

190

69.6

A. P.

139

71.8

9.38

122

76.3

9.35

103

77.3

TAMIL NADU

263

106.8

8.67

257

103.0

8.74

167

106.0

M. P.

111

41.1

9.73

103

48.8

9.84

76

41.6

U. P.

2141

62.2

9.54

2169

67.0

10.61

2193

61.9

BIHAR

254

55.2

9.15

249

59.0

9.76

251

56.6

HARYANA

97

73.9

9.94

93

70.0

10.52

115

74.2

PUNJAB

94

74.9

9.42

90

73.1

10.06

100

75.0

UTTARAKHAND

102

60.6

9.22

97

61.6

9.61

96

60.5

INDIA TOTAL

5067

71.5

10.37

4953

71.1

10.62

4517

67.6

(Source-Indian Sugar, LXVII.no. 10, Jan, 2017)

Globalization process has posed the new challenges for the sugar cane and sugar beet agriculture and a sugar industry. Sugar cane cultivation has assumed five dimensions viz., maximization of productivity, minimization of production cost, sustainability, value addition and competitiveness. These factors are mainly associated with the harvest of maximum cane yield and sugar ratio per month per hectare with new technologies developments, price, market, policies of the countries for sugar cane growing transport, sugar, fuel ethanol, electricity, other co products, etc.

WORLD SUGAR CANE PRODUCTIVITY, 2014

In 2013, the nationwide mean sugar cane productivity of Peru per year was 133.71 t/ha and was maximum among the cane growing countries. Peru ranked first at world with the average sugar cane yield of 126.05 t/ha during 2014 (Source-www.fact fish.com statistics).The age of the crop at harvest has not mentioned and therefore, per month per hectare productivity could not discussed. In Peru, major sugar cane growing area has received natural rains, mostly every month. The cane planting and harvesting is noticed throughout the year. Use of healthy seed, good soil preparation, proper fertilizer scheduling, crushing of cane immediately after harvest, cared ratoons etc. may be the factors responsible for more yield. Brazil (South America), largest producer of sugar in the world, a country close to Peru, has harvested 70.64 t/ha in 2014 (Table 7) and ranked 34th.

African countries, Malawi (107.99 t/ha), Kenya (89.74) and Mauritius (79.78) ranked fourth, twelveth and twenty fourth at world level during 2014

(Table 7) in getting good sugar cane productivity. Healthy seed, use of balanced fertilisers, availability of water, etc. factors seems to be responsible for satisfactory harvest of cane. The progress made by Kenya in cane productivity noticed favourable and may be due to use of cane development practices along with timely planting and harvesting of promising sugar cane new varieties.

Mozambique, has a congenial climate and irrigation water sources to harvest the maximum cane, more than 78.17 t/ha. However, modern irrigation, soil nutrients management, planting season and harvesting schedule, use of high yielding varieties, pest control mainly borers and locust, etc. technologies needs to be validated before recommendations for maximum productivity. The climatic factors are more suitable in Malawi, South Africa, Mozambique, Cameroon and Togo, to get about 11.00 to 12.00 % sugar ratio from 12 to 14 months age of cane like in Western India and Australia.

Ghana and Cameroon are the another prime countries suitable for integrated sugar industries with congenial climate to grow cane, helpful laws for development of the industry by the Respective Governments, high wish of the farmers to cooperate, need, etc. In many countries in Africa needs to adopt the modern cane cultivation practices, stubble management, timely harvesting of cane, efficient transport of cane , crushing of fresh cane, etc. as per edaphic and non-edaphic factors. However, in identified area of proposed and even existing sugar industry, with some changes after due research, the recommendations needs to be given to farmers for more profitable farming. It is vital to identify the major problems like drought, poor water drainage, borer, locust, termite, diseases, proper nutrient, irrigation management, cane harvesting and transport, labour management and their solutions for profitable cultivation of cane and co crops and it is necessary in many countries.

The countries like, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, China, Australia, Fiji, etc. needs more concrete solutions of problems with latest research in many aspects of cane cultivation. Typhoons, salinity, poor soil fertility, low temperatures in winter, drought, uncared stubble cane, pest problem, etc. are the causes of low yields of cane and sugar, mainly in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, Philippines, etc. Some of the problems responsible for low sugar cane productivity in many countries like Vietnam (poor water drainage, severe infestation of top shoot borer), Philippines (excessive lodging of cane, non-availability of local high sugared varieties), Thailand (more lodging of cane, excessive flowering, low sucrose), etc. may be the location and area specific and are also responsible for minimum sugar output.

Guyana, seems to be producing sugar in adverse climate, poor water drainage, very low soil PH, number of ratoons (stubble cane) are more than 25, with minimum matured cane population at harvest etc. conditions and hence, very poor cane yields .In addition, scanty use of organic and bio fertilizers, more abandoned cane area, etc. factors seems to be more responsible for low mean yield of, 55.44 t/ha. However, use of machinery, control of pests, seed production, water management, etc. practices are nicely, followed. Suriname (South America) harvested poor mean cane yield of 40.00 t/ha (Table 7) .Sugar cane productivity noticed very low in Nigeria,

Rwanda, Ghana, Madagascar, etc. countries, may be due to many factors including neglected stubble canes.

It is suggested that there is a prime need to follow the recent sugar cane cultivation practices with modern research backup to get more than 10.00 tonnes per month per hectare stalk yield at harvest with more sugar.

TABLE 7 – SUGAR CANE PRODUCTIVITY PER HECTARE IN, 2014.

COUNTRY

TONNES/ ha.

RANK

PERU

126.05

1

MALAWI

107.99

4

KENYA

89.74

12

AUSTRALIA

81.33

22

MAURITIUS

79.78

24

MOZAMBIQUE

78.17

26

BRAZIL

70.64

34

INDIA

70.25

35

GUYANA

55.44

54

JAPAN

50.61

62

SURINAME

40.00

74

MADAGASCAR

32.09

82

GHANA

24.83

83

RWANDA

22.16

92

Average cane yield in Australia and Brazil during 2006-07 was 86.75 and 118.00 t/ha. In some of the sugar factories in Australia, Colombia and Brazil, the average cane yield was more than 125 t/ha, while in one of the progressive sugar factory, Shri. Vighnahar co-op sugar factory, Pune, India, the average sugar cane yield during 2013-14 was 106.30 t/ha and in many villages, it was more than 150 t/ha.

Sugar cane is a physiologically a C4 plant, and is one of the most efficient crops to convert the solar energy into the maximum dry matter production. As per the Agro-Biological calculations, and considering only 50% use of Solar Radiation and 30% Transpiration loss in sugar cane, it is possible to harvest 650 t of biomass from one hectare area. It is possible to harvest the average, commercial maximum, experimental maximum and theoretical maximum sugar cane yield of 84, 148, 212 and 472 t/ha/yr (www.fapesp.br.moore).

In Western India, Maharashtra State, one of the progressive cane grower from Sangli province has achieved, 369.62 t/ha of cane yield in pre-seasonal plant cane, another farmer harvested 234.84 t/ha in seasonal plant cane and in stubble cane, one farmer from Kolhapur province got 331.83 t/ha in 2015-16 and they followed the most recent technologies with organic and inorganic farming practices ( Agrowon , local News Paper, Pune, 22-03-2017).

There is a more scope to bridge the gap between the potential and actual cane yield and sugar output per hectare per month, with the adoption of Modern-Technologies and Bottle Neck Planning in cane cultivation, sugar and co-products processing in association with export oriented quality products.

SUGAR PROJECTIONS IN INDIA, 2025

Sugar requirement of India by 2025 AD may depend on the consumption and production of sugar in India, and is given in Table 8. The information will be helpful in planning the sugar production, consumption, export, etc. targets. Cane productivity (100 t/ha), sugar recovery (11.50%) and sugar production (46.53 million t) are possible targets by 2025 AD, as medium term planning and in 2040 AD, as long term targets, it may be 120.00 t/ha, 12.00 % and 70.00 mln t, which can be achieved by adopting the modern cane growing and processing strategies in India, considering the more demand of sugar (for country use, first and then export), fuel ethanol, co-generation, alcohol, etc.

TABLE 8 – PROJECTIONS OF REQUIREMENT OF SUGAR IN INDIA, 2025

YEAR

HUMAN POPULATION EXPECTED

(million)

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION

(Kg/Year)

SWEETENERS REQUIREMENT

INCLUDING EXPORT

(million t)

SUGAR

JAGGERY etc.

TOTAL

SUGAR

JAGGERY etc.

TOTAL

2009-10*

1170

17.90

05.10

23.00

2020

1330

28.00

14.00

42.00

37.24

18.62

55.86

2025

1410

33.00

18.00

51.00

46.53

25.38

71.91

 

  1. 2. AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY; PRESENT AND FUTURE SUGAR PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND DEFICIT

The sugar production, consumption, import and deficit including export during October- September year, 2016-17(Source-Cooperative Sugar, India, Jan. 2017, Vol.48, no. 5) of some of the African countries is given in table 9.

It appears from the data that there is no sugar production in Ghana, Liberia and very less in Togo, Rwanda, Benin, etc. There is a notable consumption of sugar during 2016-17, in descending order from 1,800,000 to 19,000 tonnes in Sudan and South Sudan, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya to Liberia (Table- 9 ) for daily use with the import of sugar from 1,540,000 to 1,450, 000 to 19,000 tonnes by Nigeria to Sudan to Liberia .

TABLE 9 – PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, IMPORT AND DEFCIT OF SUGAR IN SOME OF THE AFRICAN COUNTRIES IN 2016-17

*(Oct.- Sep. Year, 000 tonnes, raw value)

NAME OF THE COUNTRY

SUGAR PRODUCTION

SUGAR CONSUMPTION

SUGAR IMPORT

SUGAR DEFICIT INCLUDING EXPORT

SUDAN & SOUTH SUDAN

700

1,800

1,450

1,800

NIGERIA

60

1,600

1,540

1540

SOUTH AFRICA

1750

1915

315

465

GHANA

0

279

324

369

TANZANIA

340

675

340

345

ANGOLA

40

355

315

315

KENYA

625

930

305

305

ZIMBABWE

500

475

115

255

CONGO D. R.

70

277

197

197

SENEGAL

110

270

160

160

COTE D’IVOIRE

170

302

142

152

GUINEA

25

173

148

148

MADAGASCAR

105

181

111

146

TOGO

102

122

142

MALI

35

157

122

122

BENIN

10

105

105

115

CHAD

35

124

89

89

RWANDA

10

80

70

70

BURKINA FASO

45

98

58

58

CAMEROON

150

181

36

41

LIBERIA

0

19

19

19

ETHIOPIA

600

491

25

0

MALAWI

300

242

0

0

MOZAMBIQUE

450

195

0

0

Source — Cooperative Sugar, India, Jan.2017, Vol.48, no.5

Deficit of sugar including export in some of the African countries is highlighted in table 9 and it ranged from 1,800,000 (Sudan, South Sudan) to 19,000 (Liberia) tonnes. In a near future, the countries viz. Sudan, South Sudan, Nigeria, South Africa, Madagascar, Togo, Ghana, Cameroon, Tanzania, Rwanda, etc. may initiate or increase the sugar production, as per situation to cater the need of the people and employment addition with integrated and diversified products.

FUEL ETHANOL IN AFRICA

Fuel ethanol production is scanty in Africa and is a prime need of many countries. South Africa, Ethiopia and Malawi are the only three countries producing about 10000, 10000 and 2000 barrels per day, in 2012 (Table 10). It is noticed that Mozambique and Ethiopia has planned for production of fuel ethanol. The many countries as given in table 9 and 10 are producing sugar, however, no production of ethanol except three countries. It is possible to produce fuel ethanol with suitable expansion and by extending the cane crushing season with due modifications as per Indian technologies, which are most practical and economical. Countries having no any sugar factory like Ghana, Eritrea, Liberia, etc. must plan for production of major co products including ethanol. This is the suitable period after economic crisis in many countries to boost the sugar and other industries.

TABLE 10 – FUEL ETHANOL AND ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN SOME OF THE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

NAME OF THE COUNTRY

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN 2013

FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN 2012

(billion KWH)

(000 barrels per day )

SOUTH AFRICA

258.00

10.00

NIGERIA

24.87

MOZAMBIQUE

15.00

0

GHANA

13.00

0

ZIMBABWE

9.20

0

ETHIOPIA

8.60

10.00

KENYA

8.50

0

CONGO D. R.

8.50

0

CAMEROON

6.70

0

ANGOLA

5.80

0

TANZANIA

5.30

0

SENEGAL

3.40

0

MADAGASCAR

2.00

0

MALAWI

1.90

0.20

SURINAME

1.50

0

MALI

1.40

0

GUINEA

1.00

0

BURKINA FASO

0.70

0

RWANDA

0.40

0

CHAD

0.20

0

BENIN

0.20

0

TOGO

0.10

0

LIBERIA

0.03

0

COTE D’ IVOIRE

SUDAN & SOUTH SUDAN

(Source -indexmundi.com 2017)

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN AFRICA


Electricity production with the use of bagasse is also associated with the sugar cane based sugar industry and is working in excellence by all respects in India. South Africa is the only one country in Africa continent producing maximum of 258 billion kWh electricity per year (Table 10), followed by Nigeria, producing 24.87 billion kWh in 2013. There is a vast scope to Mozambique, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Cameroon, Sudan, South Sudan, South Africa, Ghana, Togo, etc. to start or to increase the co-generation through sugar factories.

TABLE 11 — DEFICIT OF SUGAR IN SOME OF THE COUNTRIES IN AFRICA

*(Oct.- Sep. Year, 000 tonnes, raw value)

NAME OF THE COUNTRY

SUGAR PRODUCTION IN 2016-17

SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN 2016-17

DEFICIT OF SUGAR IN A YEAR INCLUDING EXPORT

GHANA

0

279

369

HAITI

0

182

182

TOGO

102

142

NAMIBIA

0

81

81

GAMBIA

0

79

79

BOTSWANA

0

69

69

ERETRIA

0

48

48

SIERRA LEONE

0

33

33

GUINEA BISSAU

0

22

22

LIBERIA

0

19

19

It is noticed that in a immediate future, with the efforts and more suitable policies of respective Governments and support of industrialists may result to start new sugar factories, in Ghana, Liberia, Togo, Eretria, etc. countries, on priority to create the more employment, to produce more food and to support to overcome the financial crisis situation considering climate, irrigation facilities, land availability, etc. Sugar deficit for own consumption including export (as related) in these identified countries during 2016-17 was 19,000 to 369,000 tonnes (Table 11) and expected to increase, year after year.

Many countries are planning for the new sugar industry establishments, however, judicious, prompt, time bound and painstaking efforts are needed at all levels. It is experienced that mostly many years are required to start the new projects and this needs to be avoided, as it increases the cost, reduces the profit and loses the interest of the people and financial organisations.

SUGAR POSITION OF SOME COUNTRIES OTHER THAN AFRICA

Production, consumption, export and import of sugar in some of the countries from the world during 2016-17 is given in table 12. On the basis of data available ( Source-Cooperative Sugar,January,2016 and 2017,) it is clear that China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia imported the sugar to the tune of 4,800,000 (China) to 1,505,000 tonnes (Saudi Arabia ) in 2016-17. The import of sugar by other countries like Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Venezuela, Sri Lanka, Chile, Vietnam, Philippines, Myanmar, Suriname, etc. is also highlighted. There is no any other option than import of sugar by UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Yemen, etc. (Table 12), as there is no production of sugar. It is necessary for many countries like India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Venezuela, Sri Lanka, Chile, Vietnam, Philippines, Myanmar, Suriname, Nepal, needs to increase the production of sugar from sugar cane by establishment of new units and expansion of existing ones to cater the need of the people.

TABLE 12 – PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND IMPORT OF SUGAR IN SOME COUNTRIES OTHER THAN AFRICA IN, 2016-17

*(Oct.- Sep. Year, 000 tonnes, raw value)

COUNTRY/

YEAR

SUGAR

PRODUCTION

SUGAR

CONSUMPTION

SUGAR

EXPORT

SUGAR IMPORT

2016-17

2015-16

2016-17

2015-16

2016-17

2016-17

CHINA

9,650

10 000

16,140

15,640

65

4,,800

INDONESIA

2,250

2,700

6,420

6,520

0

4,100

BANGLADESH

101

101

2,165

2,090

100

2,164

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

0

0

265

232

1,845

2,110

MALAYSIA

13

13

1,780

1,720

100

1 867

SAUDI ARABIA

0

0

1,230

1,202

320

1,505

INDIA

23,500

27,745

26,750

25,500

1,500

1,500

EGYPT

2,350

1,920

3,510

3390

1,25

1,285

IRAN

1,575

1,400

2,515

2,780

0

940

IRAQ

0

0

836

815

0

836

VENEZUELA

405

505

1,200

1,270

0

795

MOROCCO

525

480

1,250

1,301

0

725

SRI LANKA

50

50

680

680

0

630

YEMEN

0

0

597

583

0

597

CHILE

260

260

789

800

0

529

SYRIA

94

160

590

625

0

496

VIETNAM

1,150

1,450

1,650

1,740

80

230

PHILIPPINES

2,235

2,300

2,400

2,395

195

215

MYANMAR

268

268

435

385

20

187

SURINAME

7

7

22

21

0

15

 

II.FUEL ETHANOL— SOME FACTS ABOUT PRESENT AND FUTURE USE AT GLOBAL LEVEL

Production of fuel ethanol during 2012 was 876,000 and 403,000 b/d in USA and Brazil (Table 13), while consumption was 838,000 and 359,000 b/d, respectively and was maximum at world level. The remaining countries producing the ethanol were in between 3,000 to 43,000 b/d, out of total production of 1,462,400 b/d (Source-www.indexmundi.com). China, Thailand and India are the only three countries from Asia Continent producing fuel ethanol. It is observed that only South Africa, Ethiopia and Malawi are producing the fuel Ethanol in Africa.

Data of Renewal Fuels Association indicated that during 2015, the fuel ethanol production at world level was 25,682 million gallons and in which, share of USA was 14,806 million of gallons.

TABLE 13 – PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF FUEL ETHANOL IN MAJOR COUNTRIES (2012)

*(000 barrels per day)

COUNTRY

PRODUCTION

CONSUMPTION

USA

876.00

838.00

BRAZIL

403.00

359.00

CHINA

43.00

43.00

CANADA

33.00

41.00

GERMANY

13.00

27.00

THAILAND

8.10

9.10

INDIA

5.30

5.30

ARGENTINA

4.30

4.50

NETHERLANDS

3.00

5.20

WORLD, TOTAL

1462.40

1441.00

The consumption of fuel ethanol was maximum in North America and South America (Table 14) followed by Europe region and Africa seems to be far behind in 2012 (www.indexmundi.com). There is a huge scope to produce sugar cane based fuel ethanol, its marketing and use in Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central America and Caribbean regions. This is a known fact and to point out it, is the object for futuristic planning. Consumption of fuel ethanol in 2016 may be 940,000 b/d and US Energy Information Administration (EIA), forecasts it to 950,000 b/d in 2018.

Kinji Saito, Executive General Manager and Managing Officer (Global Automotive Operations),Suzuki Motor Corporation opined at the Geneva Motor Show,2017 that India is expected to grow into the third-biggest car market in the world by 2020 (economictimes.indiatimes.com). Maruti Suzuki India commands nearly 50 per cent of the Indian passenger vehicle market. Under such situations, the fuel ethanol demand will be at higher side.

Due to increase of population and industrialization, the demand of energy is increasing. Simultaneously, the worldwide ethanol and bio-ethanol production is mostly stable and increasing, but slowly. Worldwide market for ethanol production and demand has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth. The focus towards renewable sources for power production in various countries of the world has been shifted due to depletion of crude oil reserves.

TABLE 14 – REGIONAL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF FUEL ETHANOL IN, 2012

*(000 barrels per day)

NAME OF THE REGION

PRODUCTON

CONSUMPTION

NORTH AMERICA

909.00

879.30

SOUTH AMERICA

421.0

374.60

EUROPE

68.30

113.60

ASIA

57.90

60.90

OCEANIA

5.30

7.60

AFRICA

0.40

0.40

CENTRAL AMERICA & CARIBBEAN

0.40

4.70

Source-www.indexmundi.com /

Energy Information Administration has projected 48 % increase in world energy consumption by 2040 and US EIA also opined that world production may be 99.10 million bbl /d in 2040. EIA pointed out that the liquid fuels, mostly petroleum based, remains the largest source. The liquid share of world market energy consumption is projected to fall down to 30% in 2040 (www.yearbook. EIA Enerdata.net). This may happen, as oil prices may rise more in the long term due to crisis in oil production and shortage. Under these circumstances, many energy users have suggested to adopt the more energy- efficient technologies like bio-ethanol, however, may be costly.

In this situation, sugar cane based fuel ethanol is a unique, can be available in ample and economical fuel option. Therefore, sugar cane crop will mainly lead than any other crop in this sector, too, in a longer future. Under These circumstances, Asia and Africa, will be the world leaders, after South America in producing fuel ethanol from sugar cane.

START NOTE:

  • Oil and Gas prices will never come down at world level.

  • Global demand for Ethanol in future, is expected to grow more and imports will be at higher side in E.U., USA, Canada, China, Japan, etc.

  • Due to the shortage of fossil fuel ,the production of ethanol has no limit, for its use in the home country and export, too.

  • Sugar cane crop can yield, maximum of 7,500 lit./ha of ethanol in Africa, as studied by Johnson (Source: 2007, www.carensa.net), and noticed most suitable and economical than Bio Fuel yields of Palm Oil (3,000 lit./ha), Sweet Sorghum (4,200 lit/ha), Maize (2,500 lit./ha), Jatropha (700 lit. /ha) and Soy Bean (500 lit./ha).

  • The production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane juice or molasses found economical.

  • Multi commodity resources are mainly observed in Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet crops, due to more sucrose content than other crops. Sugar cane crop is economically more productive and can withstand in adverse climatic conditions.

  • Considering overall situation and facts at global level, there is an enormous scope to grow sufficient and quality sugar cane crop than other crops for production of fuel ethanol.

  • India, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Kenya, Uganda, Guyana, Ethiopia, Mozambique,Cuba,Malawi,Vietnam,Indonesia,China,Sudan,Rwanda,Egypt,Argentina, Bangladesh, Philippines, Malaysia, Cameroon, Madagascar, Togo, Suriname, Rwanda, Ghana, etc. countries can adopt a priority program for the fuel ethanol production and its use as per situation in the country, considering the future priority needs.

  1. 3. SUGAR CANE BAGASSE BASED ELECTRICITY- AN EXCELLENT CO PRODUCT OF SUGAR INDUSTRY IN RURAL AREA

The production and consumption of electricity at world level in 2013 was 22143.38 and 20244.02 billion kWh. Utilization (9177.20) was maximum in Asia region along with production of 10008.90 billion kWh (Table 15) followed by North America and Europe. Minimum consumption of only 103.21, 456.25 and 597.91 billion kWh was in Central America and Caribbean Region (Source- www.indexmundi. com) followed by Oceania and Africa, respectively. It is interesting to note that in spite of maximum sugar production from sugar cane based sugar factories in South America, the electricity production ranked fourth place in regional comparison. This indicated that a due attention is needed in creation to expand the bagasse based electricity.

TABLE 15 – WORLD ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION, 2013

*(billion kWh)

REGION

PRODUCTION

CONSUMPTION

ASIA

10008.90

9177.20

NORTH AMERICA

4988.94

4633.94

EUROPE

4792.30

4377.70

SOUTH AMERICA

1069.11

897.81

AFRICA

679.93

597.91

OCEANIA

496.17

456.25

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

118.02

103.21

WORLD TOTAL

22143.38

20244.02

Source-www.indexmundi.com /

African and Asian countries have to boost the electricity generation for overall development. Central America and Caribbean countries have also a valuable scope in co- generation. The raw material bagasse, gift of the noble crop, is available in ample in many factories, therefore, individual and joint efforts of group of factories are essential to utilize it for co- generation.

MAKING UP AND UTILIZATION OF ELECTRICITY

Electricity production in 2015 (Source-year book energy, 2016, www.cia /world fact book) and consumption in 2013 (Source – www.indexmundi.com) in some of the countries is presented in table 16.

Data showed that there is a less production of electricity in Congo D.R., Zimbabwe, Ghana, Zambia, Mozambique and Nigeria of 7.80, 7.81, 8.21,11.19,14.83 and 24.87 billion kWh in 2015 and it indicates that in many countries from Africa continent, it is very less or negligible. In South Africa only, it is satisfactory with 258 billion kWh in 2013 and ranked next to France, 569 billion kWh in 2015. China and USA, are top in production with 5682 and 4324 billion kWh in the world. India ranked third, Russian Federation fourth, Japan fifth in position and next are Germany and Canada in electricity production. Brazil has produced about 586 billion kWh in 2015. Notable production of electricity than consumption is noticed only in South Africa and Mozambique, in Africa (Table 16). More quantum of electricity generation is required on higher side in most of the countries of the world for use in house, transport, industry and other, in future.

TABLE 16 – GLOBAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION (2015) AND CONSUMPTION (2013) IN SOME COUNTRIES

*(billion KWH)

COUNTRY

PRODUCTION*

CONSUMPTION**

CHINA

5,682

4882

USA

4,324

3868

INDIA

1,368

903

RUSSIAN FED.

1,062

878

JAPAN

995

935

GERMANY

638

534

CANADA

632

533

BRAZIL

586

480

FRANCE

569

453

SOUTH AFRICA

258 (2013)

212

NIGERIA

24.87

23.00

MOZAMBIQUE

14.83

11.00

ZAMBIA

11.19

11.00

GHANA

8.21

9.60

ZIMBABWE

7.81

7.60

CONGO, D. R.

7.80

7.90

Source—*Year Book Energy, 2016. www.cia.com / World Fact Book & **www.indexmundi.com

The World Energy Council (WEC) has predicted that world electricity consumption during 2040 will increase by more than 40,000 TWh/a (cdn.exxonmobil.com). Global electricity demand seen rising by 65% from 2014 to 2040 i.e. 2.5 times faster than overall energy demand. WEC has also estimated the residential and commercial electricity demand and which may rises by 70% from 2014 to 2040, while industry will up by 55%.The population growth will create a more need for affordable and reliable energy ( for home, transportation, business use ). They expected that the global demand rising by about 25% from 2014 to 2040 and is a significant increase, however, it would have been for higher with exceeding of 110%. Therefore, production of electricity will be a challenge before many countries, in future.

It is suggested that sufficient co-generation is necessary for local use and then for export in most of the countries through the expansion of existing sugar cane based sugar industries and establishment of new more, of course.

START NOTE

  • Sugar cane is the superb and cheaper asset to make available the bagasse and trash for electricity generation.

  • Most characterize and cost effective co-generation plant options related to sugar cane bagasse based are available in India. In future, the cotton sticks, firewood, pigeon pea sticks, sugar cane trash, bamboo, etc. can be used additionally, as per availability in the sugar factory for electricity generation. This technology is surely benefitted to increase the income of the farmers through sale of valuable farm produce. Transport of this material has another advantage to add employment. This will help to extend the electricity production period and which can be extended to even 300 days in a year for economical utilization of workers and machinery, etc. Feasibility and profitability of co- generation in a sugar factory may depends on type of farm produce, quantity available, calorific value, transport cost, etc.

  • As studied by Johnson (Source: 2007, www.carensa.net) in Africa, it is observed that sugar cane crop has a maximum power yield, 157.5

    • GJ/ha and found most suitable and economical than Palm Oil (105 GJ/ha), Sweet Sorghum (88.2 GJ/ha), Maize (52.5 GJ/ha), Jatropha (24.5 GJ/ha) and Soy Bean (17.5 GJ/ha).

    • Hollanda (2010) pointed out that recent co-generation technology plants are being designed to produce from 200 to over 300 kWh of electricity per tonne of bagasse (H. Erber, 2010, Trade and Environmental Review, UN).

    IV. OTHER VALIDATED ADVANTAGES OF INTEGRATED SUGAR INDUSTRY

    • Sugar industry helped to strengthen the gender equality ratio by providing the additional employment generation through the production of major crops, co- crops, use of resources, etc.

    • Development of sugar industry in rural area has major advantage by creating the sustainable livelihoods and noticed important to soften the stresses among the people.

    • Restriction on the migration of people from rural to urban areas, mainly big cities is possible. It is noticed in India by big way to mitigate the migration problem through Socio Economic Developments due to sugar sector.

    • Education, Health, Farm Produce Market, Mini Finance, Consumer Store, Road, Sports Development, etc. facilities creation by sugar industries is always unique in rural area, as experienced in India, very successfully, since a long time and on vast area. The pains taking efforts in establishing and smooth running of sugar complexes observed productive to create the progress on above aspects.

    • Rural Agro Industries viz. Dairy and Goat Farming, Meat, Palm Oil Production, Cashew Nut Processing, Fruit Juice Industries, Vegetable Farming, Poly House Crops, etc. can be sheltered and viable under the roof of Integrated Sugar Industry and Farmers can earn additional income. There is a marvelous quote on earnings by the Second Richest Person of the World, Mr. Warren Buffet and is, “Never depend on single income. Make investment to create a second source.”

    • Integrated and Diversified Sugar Industry Projects are noticed more practical in development of the foreign investments, too.

    Considering to handover the major benefits to the Farmers Household through Agricultural Sector, and therefore, growing of Sugar Cane and co-crops, noticed an excellent choice in many countries from Africa and other World, on the line of India, for sugar, fuel ethanol, electricity and employment generation and for this, only one answer is,

    SUGAR INDUSTRY REVOLUTION THROUGH SUGAR CANE “

  • Sugar industry is one of the very strong pillar of the Indian Economy, after Textile industries, and will exists in fulfilling the significant long, medium and near term goals .

    India is a bright spot within the global macro scenario and the hub of development of most recent technologies in textile, sugar, iron and steel, information technology, mineral fuels, vehicles, electrical , education, computers, mini-finance, pharmaceuticals, organic chemicals, engineering goods including small farming machinery, seed production, crop cultivation practices, food processing, etc.

    India is a para continent for the growth of many sectors like Scientific, Technological, Financial, Healthcare, Education and particularly Sugar, Ethanol, Electricity, etc. and which are related to the Sugar Cane Crop.

    Now, there is a prime need to work at Indian and International level in a concrete manner with a time bound programme to establish the Integrated Sugar Industries in many countries in association with the respective nations, development boards, world banks, industrialists, base companies, etc. mainly to create the employment through production of food, feed, fuel and electricity.

    The validated Indian technologies and machinery related to the manufacture of sugar and co- products are cost effective, durable, qualitative in a run and low in maintenance. These are mostly suitable to work in sugar cane growing countries of the world with the due modifications considering the climatic conditions.

    It is suggested to the nations, with the high population growth to 2025 and having the congenial agricultural resources, very strongly for growing the most profitable and very close to nature, sugar cane crop, in a suitable cropping pattern under the climate change conditions to increase the employment in rural area and to mitigate the need of food, feed, electricity, ethanol, chemicals, bio-gas, bio-fuel, bio-compost, etc. for better livelihood of the people at World level and Africa Continent, in particular.

    Therefore,

    “Sugar Cane Crop Represents The Significance of Economic Sciences Under Climate Change Conditions In The Rural World”

    Dr. PATIL A.S.

    February, 2017